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Personality disorders

The 10 most frequent personality disorders are:

  • Paranoid
  • Schizoid
  • Schizotypal
  • Dissocial
  • Histrionic
  • Borderline
  • Narcissistic
  • Anankastic
  • Anxious
  • Dependent


Personality disorders are deeply routed, sustained behavioral patterns characterized by an inflexible response to different personal and social situations. The perception, thinking, feelings and interpersonal relationships of those affected by a personality disorder deviate significantly from those of the respective general population. The behavioral patterns are mostly stable and refer to a broad range of behavior and psychological functions. They often go along with various degrees of personal suffering and impaired social functioning.

Perceived specific disorders of intra-psychic and interactive functions are often compensated through addictive substances.  Personality disorders per se are ego-syntonic, i.e. patients suffer more from the difficulties their environment has with them. This leads to symptoms in the context of which recourse is taken to addictive substances. Hence, this constitutes an adjustment attempt.

Substance use is therefore basically due to the perceived discrepancy between the actual and an ideal attitude towards life. What they are looking for, among others, are relaxation, stimulation, social attention, stress reduction, excitation or mitigation of anxieties (sedation), the feeling of being more productive or creative (psycholysis), more  self-confidence. In this way, drugs are used for emotional or affect regulation. The primary aspect here is protection from internal and external stimuli.  Especially highly impulsive behavior is improved by substance use as self-therapy, promoting excessive consumption in the form of both high-dose and risky consumption.


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